Rock Dwellings in Brhlovce

18. May 2021

Rock dwellings in BRHLOVECY is a unique complex of residential and economic spaces carved directly into the volcanic bedrock. Rock dwellings are located throughout the village, but they are best seen on an alley called Šurda. The entrance to the rock dwellings is accessible directly from the street or from the adjacent courtyards.

More information and opening hours of the museum can be found at

Origin of Rock Dwellings

The origin of unique rock dwellings in Slovakia is not clear. Some authors associate them with the possibility of hiding from the Turks in the 16th century, others link their origin to the economic activity of the local population. It is certain that the development of rock dwellings in the 18th century is directly related to the rapid development of stonemasonry in Brhlovce. This occurred in 1756, when Anton Körmöndy, the mayor of Kremnica and one of the richest people in Hungary, had a late Baroque manor house built in Brhlovce by Italian masters. It was from the Italian masters that the Brhlovskis learned a great skill in machining stone.

After the departure of the Italian masters, stonemasonry workshops began to appear in Brhlovce and stone mining began in large numbers. Rock dwellings were created in places where the stone was mined. It can be said that the rock dwellings are located on the territory of a former quarry.

The rock dwellings, which can be found mainly in Šurda Street, date mainly from the 18th to the 20th century. In the past, a large part of them also served as living spaces. Thanks to the stable climatic conditions, it never froze there in winter and it was pleasantly cold in summer.


The rock dwellings in which Pivnica BRHLOVCE is located are carved into the volcanic bedrock, which was created 13,000,000 years ago by the mighty volcano Sitno. It is a rock massif, which was created by combining volcanic pool and lava, which geology calls tuff and andesite.

Perhaps also due to the elements of fire and earth, Skalné dwellings have internal energy that affects our lives and the character of our wine. Throughout the year, Skalné dwellings have almost ideal climatic conditions for slow maturation of wine.


The exposition of the Tek Museum – Yard No. 142, which is located in a house from 1932 and in the back of its yard in rooms carved into tuff rock, documents the peculiar way of living in this region. The interesting exhibits of this exhibition include stone tools, folk furniture, pottery, kitchen inventory. The exposition of folk housing is an extended exposition of the Tek Museum in Levice.

Yard no. 142 received the international award for the preservation and restoration of the architectural monument Europa Nostra 1993.